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24 Nov This presentation is based on a agricultural land use model around the city. This is the theory of urban Geography it describe the agricultural. Thünen’s model of agricultural land, created before The use which a piece of land is put to is a. Figure Von Thünen’s model: the black dot represents a city; 1 (white) to the land (rent) drops with distance from the city, those farming at the other edges of.

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Wood is bulky and heavy and therefore difficult to transport. For example, modern refrigerators enable perishable products to be transported longer distances.

Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons. Possible consumers play, finally, the crucial role for the choice of location. Because the cost of gaining access to the land rent drops with distance from the city, those farming at the other edges of agriculgural ring would find that increased transportation costs would be offset by lower rents. The economy in the surrounding rural area would have to rearrange itself according to economic behavior in such a way that each industry agriculturzl optimal profit in:.

Dairying and intensive farming lies closest to the city.

These lands, he argued, would voh develop rent value, as the population of the state increased. In this case, the model takes a shape of perfect concentric circles.

It is assumed there are no transport infrastructures such as roads or rivers and that farmers are transporting their production to the market using horses and carts. This was because, in the early 19 th century, people used wood for building, cooking, and heating.

Von Thünen’s Rural Land Use Model

Since locational rent falls with increasing distance from the market, the amount each farmer is willing to pay for agricultural land will shrink and the price of land will eventually decline. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.

The location rent is given by the following equation:. The model compares the relationships between production cost, the market price and the transport cost of an agricultural commodity and is expressed as follows: The basic conditions of the model, however, could be approximated by slight modifications of the respective reality. After deducting production costs and location-specific transport costs, however, nothing more remains of the market profits.


Wood was a very important fuel for heating and cooking and is very heavy and difficult to transport so it is located close to the city. This formula was so important to him that it was a dying wish of his that it be placed on his tombstone. In such a situation, he believed, land uses would be naturally arranged in a pattern of concentric circles. Transport cost depends on the distance from the market and different kind of products.

The gain from farming per unit area vocational rent decreases with increasing distance from the market. This means that land close to the community created a higher level of economic rent.

For each product there is a certain distance from the city where its production would be worthwhile. The minimum price of a commodity is calculated by vocational rent, transport costs and fixed production costs — the profit is then the difference between the costs and the fixed market price.

This simply developed space restaurant model reacts however sensitively to changes of the space overcoming costs. All agricultural land uses are maximizing their productivity rentwhich in this case is dependent upon their location from the market Central City. If other natural landscapes or transportation routes are present, the land use zones would be stripe-formed.

It corresponds to the maximum amount a farmer could pay for lad the land, without making losses. The Thuenen model leads to the idea of complete self-sufficiency among farmers. February Learn how and when to remove this template message.

If several markets were present, groups of zones would be formed around each market. The model compares the relationships between production cost, the market price and the transport cost of an agricultural commodity and is expressed as follows:.

von Thunen’s Model of Land Use

Beyond the fourth ring lies the wilderness, which is too great a distance from the central city for any type of agricultural product.


The idea he presented is that a surplus will arise on the earlier units of an investment of either capital or labor, but as time goes on the diminishing return of newer investments will mean that if wages vary with the level of productivity those that are early will receive a greater reward for their labor and capital.

Animals can walk to the central city for sale or for butchering. The most productive activities gardening or milk production or activities having high transport costs firewood locate nearby the market.

The competitive power becomes indirectly measurable over locational rent. The importance lies less in the pattern of land use predicted than in its analytical approach. The circular pattern, which can be attributed to only one market and excluding transport costs gradients running from the centre, is for example only one of many conceivable geometrical starting situations.

Johann Heinrich von Thünen – Wikipedia

Therefore, they would not farm as intensely as those working land closer to the urban center. A circular, completely undilating plane with a single, dominant market in the center and no interactions with the outside. Additionally, products off as wool, hide, horn, and so on could be transported easily without concern about spoilage.

There is one isolated market in an isolated state having no interactions trade with the outside. Distance from the market. In concentrating on the effects of these two variables on profits, removal of other factors results in a homogeneous — and isolated — state: For this purpose he looked upon the agricultural landscape.

Timber and firewood would be produced for fuel and building materials in the second ring. It can be divided in two parts: If modern economics began with Adam Smith, modern location economics began with Von Thunen